Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracFastCgi


Ignore:
Timestamp:
06/26/15 11:35:10 (5 years ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

--

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
Modified
  • TracFastCgi

    v2 v3  
    1 = Trac with FastCGI =
    2 
    3 Since version 0.9, Trac supports being run through the [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface. Like [wiki:TracModPython mod_python], this allows Trac to remain resident, and is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. However, unlike mod_python, it is able to support [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html SuEXEC]. Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
    4 
    5 '''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, your choice may be [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP].
    6 
    7 == Simple Apache configuration ==
     1= Trac with FastCGI
     2
     3[[TracGuideToc]]
     4[[PageOutline(2-5, Contents, floated)]]
     5
     6[http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] or [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request.  Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
     7
     8Note that unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], ie run with different permissions than the web server runs with. `mod_wsgi` supports the `WSGIDaemonProcess` with user / group parameters to achieve the same effect.
     9
     10'''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP]/[trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp ISAPI].
     11
     12== Simple Apache configuration
    813
    914There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and
    10 `mod_fcgid`.  The `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives discussed
    11 below are `mod_fastcgi` directives; the `DefaultInitEnv` is a `mod_fcgid`
    12 directive.
    13 
    14 For `mod_fastcgi`, add the following to an appropriate Apache configuration
    15 file:
     15`mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
     16
     17The following sections focus on the FCGI specific setup, see also [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] for configuring the authentication in Apache.
     18
     19Regardless of which cgi module is used, be sure the web server has executable permissions on the cgi-bin folder. While FastCGI will throw specific permissions errors, mod_fcgid will throw an ambiguous error if this has not been done. Connection reset by peer: mod_fcgid: error reading data from FastCGI server.
     20
     21=== Set up with `mod_fastcgi`
     22
     23`mod_fastcgi` uses `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives that should be added to an appropriate Apache configuration file:
    1624{{{
    1725# Enable fastcgi for .fcgi files
     
    2937calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
    3038
    31 You can set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
     39Add the following to the Apache configuration file (below the `FastCgiIpcDir` line) if you intend to set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
    3240{{{
    3341FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac
    3442}}}
    3543
    36 Or you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory like:
     44Alternatively, you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory by adding this:
    3745{{{
    3846FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects
    3947}}}
    4048
    41 But neither of these will work for `mod_fcgid`.  A similar but partial
    42 solution for `mod_fcgid` is:
     49=== Set up with `mod_fcgid`
     50
     51Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`:
     52{{{
     53ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
     54}}}
     55Note the slash at the end.
     56
     57To set up Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use `DefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or `Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try alternative environment setup below.
     58
    4359{{{
    4460DefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
    4561}}}
    46 But this cannot be used in `Directory` or `Location` context, which makes it
    47 difficult to support multiple projects.
    48 
    49 A better method which works for both of these modules (and for  [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI as well), because it involves
    50 no server configuration settings for environment variables, is to set one
    51 of the variables in `trac.fcgi`, e.g.:
     62
     63=== alternative environment setup
     64
     65A better method to specify path to the Trac environment is to embed the path into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of the server environment variables, works for both [trac:FastCgi] modules as well as for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI:
    5266{{{
    5367import os
    5468os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
    5569}}}
    56 or
     70or:
    5771{{{
    5872import os
     
    6074}}}
    6175
    62 Using this method, different projects can be supported by using different
    63 `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`, copying and appropriately
    64 renaming `trac.fcgi` and adding the above code to create each such script.
     76With this method different projects can be supported by using different `.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
    6577
    6678See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this:
     
    6981}}}
    7082
    71 == Simple Cherokee Configuration ==
    72 
    73 Configuration wanted.
    74 
    75 == Simple Lighttpd Configuration ==
    76 
    77 The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd].
    78 
    79 lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance
    80 environments.  It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
    81 
    82 For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
    83 {{{
    84 #var.fcgi_binary="/path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
     83== Simple Cherokee Configuration
     84
     85The configuration on Cherokee's side is quite simple. You will only need to know that you can spawn Trac as an SCGI process.
     86You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
     87First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter:
     88
     89{{{
     90Host:
     91localhost:4433
     92
     93Interpreter:
     94/usr/bin/tracd —single-env —daemonize —protocol=scgi —hostname=localhost —port=4433 /path/to/project/
     95}}}
     96
     97If the port was not reachable, the interpreter command would be launched. Note that, in the definition of the information source, you will have to manually launch the spawner if you use a ''Remote host'' as ''Information source'' instead of a ''Local interpreter''.
     98
     99After doing this, we will just have to create a new rule managed by the SCGI handler to access Trac. It can be created in a new virtual server, trac.example.net for instance, and will only need two rules. The '''default''' one will use the SCGI handler associated to the previously created information source.
     100The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''$TRAC_LOCAL/htdocs/'' (where $TRAC_LOCAL is a directory defined by the user or the system administrator to place local trac resources).
     101
     102Note:\\
     103If the tracd process fails to start up, and cherokee displays a 503 error page, you might be missing the [http://trac.saddi.com/flup python-flup] package.\\
     104Python-flup is a dependency which provides trac with SCGI capability. You can install it on debian based systems with:
     105{{{
     106sudo apt-get install python-flup
     107}}}
     108
     109== Simple Lighttpd Configuration
     110
     111The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ Lighttpd].
     112
     113Lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance environments. It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
     114
     115For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with Lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
     116{{{
     117#var.fcgi_binary="/usr/bin/python /path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
    85118var.fcgi_binary="/path/to/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi" # 0.10 name of prior fcgi executable
    86119fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     
    97130}}}
    98131
    99 Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above,
    100 and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf`
    101 using `bin-environment` (as in the section above on Apache configuration).
     132Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above, and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf` using `bin-environment`, as in the section above on Apache configuration.
     133
     134Note that Lighttpd has a bug related to 'SCRIPT_NAME' and 'PATH_INFO' when the uri of fastcgi.server is '/' instead of '/trac' in this example (see [trac:#2418]). This is fixed in Lighttpd 1.5, and under Lighttpd 1.4.23 or later the workaround is to add `"fix-root-scriptname" => "enable"` as a parameter of fastcgi.server.
    102135
    103136For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`:
     
    123156                )
    124157}}}
    125 Note that field values are different.  If you prefer setting the environment
    126 variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, e.g., to
    127 `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
    128 Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even
    129 if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     158
     159Note that field values are different. If you prefer setting the environment variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, eg to `first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
     160Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     161
    130162{{{
    131163#!div class=important
    132164'''Note''' It's very important the order on which server.modules are loaded, if mod_auth is not loaded '''BEFORE''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
    133165}}}
     166
    134167For authentication you should enable mod_auth in lighttpd.conf 'server.modules', select auth.backend and auth rules:
    135168{{{
     
    168201               )
    169202
    170 
    171 }}}
    172 Note that lighttpd (I use version 1.4.3) stopped if password file doesn't exist.
    173 
    174 Note that lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
    175 
    176 Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, i.e. serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
     203}}}
     204Note that Lighttpd (v1.4.3) stops if the password file doesn't exist.
     205
     206Note that Lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
     207
     208Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, ie serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
    177209{{{
    178210# Aliasing functionality is needed
    179211server.modules += ("mod_alias")
    180212
    181 # Setup an alias for the static resources
     213# Set up an alias for the static resources
    182214alias.url = ("/trac/chrome/common" => "/usr/share/trac/htdocs")
    183215
     
    198230}
    199231}}}
     232
    200233The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks.
    201234Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it's to use TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR instead of TRAC_ENV and use global auth, let's see an example:
     
    229262}}}
    230263
    231 Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME
     264Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME:
    232265{{{
    233266fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     
    245278For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13.
    246279
    247 Other important information like [http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/wiki/TracInstall this updated TracInstall page], [wiki:TracCgi#MappingStaticResources and this] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
    248 
    249 If you use trac-0.9, read [http://lists.edgewall.com/archive/trac/2005-November/005311.html about small bug]
    250 
    251 Relaunch lighttpd, and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
    252 
    253 Note about running lighttpd with reduced permissions:
    254 
    255   If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with lighttpd settings __server.username = "www-data"__, __server.groupname = "www-data"__, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
    256 
    257 
    258 == Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration ==
     280Other important information like the [wiki:TracInstall#MappingStaticResources mapping static resources advices] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
     281]
     282
     283Relaunch Lighttpd and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
     284
     285Note about running Lighttpd with reduced permissions: If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with Lighttpd settings `server.username = "www-data"`, `server.groupname = "www-data"`, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
     286
     287== Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration
    259288
    260289The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed].
     
    262291!LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments.
    263292
    264 Setup
    265 
    266 1) Please make sure you have first have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with “tracd” first.
    267 
    268 2) Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your trac project will be accessible via:
    269 
     293 1. Please make sure you have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with "tracd" first.
     294
     295 2. Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as !TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your Trac project will be accessible via:
    270296{{{
    271297http://yourdomain.com/trac/
    272298}}}
    273299
    274 3) Go “TracVhost → External Apps” tab and create a new “External Application”.
    275 
     300 3. Go "!TracVhost → External Apps" tab and create a new "External Application".
    276301{{{
    277302Name: MyTracFCGI       
     
    290315}}}
    291316
    292 4) Optional. If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to “TracVhost → Security” tab and create a new security “Realm”.
     317 4. Optional: If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to "!TracVhost → Security" tab and create a new security Realm.
    293318
    294319{{{
     
    300325If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
    301326
    302 5) Go to “PythonVhost → Contexts” and create a new “FCGI Context”.
     327 5. Go to "!PythonVhost → Contexts" and create a new FCGI Context.
    303328
    304329{{{
     
    308333}}}
    309334
    310 6) Modify /fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini
     335 6. Modify `/fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini`
    311336
    312337{{{
     
    317342}}}
    318343
    319 7) Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
     344 7. Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
    320345
    321346{{{
     
    323348}}}
    324349
    325 === Simple Nginx Configuration ===
    326 
    327 1) Nginx configuration snippet - confirmed to work on 0.5.36
    328 {{{
     350== Simple Nginx Configuration
     351
     352Nginx is able to communicate with FastCGI processes, but can not spawn them. So you need to start FastCGI server for Trac separately.
     353
     354 1. Nginx configuration with basic authentication handled by Nginx - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
     355 {{{
    329356    server {
    330357        listen       10.9.8.7:443;
     
    341368        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
    342369
    343         location / {
     370        # it makes sense to serve static resources through Nginx (or ``~ [/some/prefix]/chrome/(.*)``)
     371        location ~ /chrome/(.*) {
     372             alias /home/trac/instance/static/htdocs/$1;
     373        }
     374
     375        # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix](/login)``
     376        # and remove the auth entries below if you want Trac to enforce
     377        # authorization where appropriate instead of needing to authenticate
     378        # for accessing the whole site.
     379        # (Or ``~ location /some/prefix(/.*)``.)
     380        location ~ (/.*) {
    344381            auth_basic            "trac realm";
    345382            auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd;
    346383
    347             # full path
    348             if ($uri ~ ^/([^/]+)(/.*)) {
    349                  set $script_name $1;
    350                  set $path_info $2;
    351             }
    352 
    353             # index redirect
    354             if ($uri ~ ^/([^/]+)$) {
    355                  rewrite (.+) $1/ permanent;
    356             }
    357          
    358384            # socket address
    359385            fastcgi_pass   unix:/home/trac/run/instance.sock;
     
    363389
    364390            ## WSGI REQUIRED VARIABLES
    365             # WSGI application name - trac instance prefix.
    366             fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        /$script_name;
    367             fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $path_info;
     391            # WSGI application name - trac instance prefix.
     392            # (Or ``fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME  /some/prefix``.)
     393            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        "";
     394            fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $1;
    368395
    369396            ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them
     
    372399            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
    373400            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
    374 
    375             # for authentication to work
     401            fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
     402
     403            # For Nginx authentication to work - do not forget to comment these
     404            # lines if not using Nginx for authentication
     405            fastcgi_param  AUTH_USER          $remote_user;
    376406            fastcgi_param  REMOTE_USER        $remote_user;
     407
     408            # for ip to work
     409            fastcgi_param REMOTE_ADDR         $remote_addr;
     410
     411            # For attchments to work
     412            fastcgi_param    CONTENT_TYPE     $content_type;
     413            fastcgi_param    CONTENT_LENGTH   $content_length;
    377414        }
    378415    }
    379416}}}
    380 
    381 2) Modified trac.fcgi:
    382 
    383 {{{
     417 1. Modified trac.fcgi:
     418 {{{
    384419#!/usr/bin/env python
    385420import os
     
    412447
    413448}}}
    414 
    415 3) reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
    416 
    417 {{{
     449 1. reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
     450 {{{#!sh
    418451trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py
    419452}}}
    420453
    421454The above assumes that:
    422  * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory.
    423  * /home/trac/instance contains a trac environment
    424  * /home/trac/htpasswd contains authentication information
    425  * /home/trac/run is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
    426   * and if your system is Linux the /home/trac/run has setgid bit set (chmod g+s run)
     455 * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory
     456 * `/home/trac/instance` contains a trac environment
     457 * `/home/trac/htpasswd` contains authentication information
     458 * `/home/trac/run` is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
     459  * and if your system is Linux the `/home/trac/run` has setgid bit set (`chmod g+s run`)
    427460  * and patch from ticket #T7239 is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
    428461
    429462Unfortunately nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
    430 Thus it is not possible to serve multiple trac instances from one server block.
    431 
    432 If you worry enough about security, run trac instances under separate users.
    433 
    434 Another way to run trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
     463Thus it is not possible to serve multiple Trac instances from one server block.
     464
     465If you worry enough about security, run Trac instances under separate users.
     466
     467Another way to run Trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
    435468
    436469----
    437 See also TracCgi, TracModPython, TracInstall, TracGuide, [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]
     470See also:  TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]